Choosing a Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Company

pcbThe demand in the printed circuit board manufacturing industry is continuously increasing. Considering the demand, manufacturers are offering durable and reliable assets to their customers. With so many choices, it can be challenging to choose the right assembly company for you. The main key here is knowing the details. There are different things that you need to take in to consideration.


This is the most important criterion you need to consider. Not all printed circuit boards are made with the same quality. In reality, failure rates may vary across different companies. Most manufacturers use Aluminum-backed boards because of the ductility property of Aluminum. To ensure quality, most companies outsource printed circuit board assembly services from professional PCB assemblers. The quality is very critical across the prototyping and design process since every small mistake can damage the entire project or product.

Turnaround Time

This criterion is also extremely critical since most prototyping projects are done in very limited time. Usually, it takes five business days to get the order. In some companies it can take even longer. But you can also choose the rushed order. The fastest turnaround time would be within 2 days or less.


In printed circuit board prototyping and manufacturing, pricing and quality do not go hand in hand. Higher rates are commanded by more experienced producers and designers. Given the competition in the industry, there are few businesses that charge more than the others. It is really a must to shop around before choosing a manufacturer.

Minimum Orders

The least amount of orders required vary from one company to another. There is no standard minimum order that is applicable to all printed circuit board companies. Find a company that will meet your need regarding minimum orders. If you plan to order a bulk amount, you should first ask for a prototype manufactured. This way can help you know the compatibility level and capabilities with your application.

Assembly Types

There are several assembly types that you can choose from. The first one is surface-mount technology assembly. This type of assembly is for smaller components. In this method, the components are placed or mounted directly on the PCB surface. Backplane assembly, on the other hand, is for larger components. It is used in interconnecting small electronic assemblies and routing signals and power to large electronic systems.

Another common type is the through-hole assembly. It is used to ensure proper placement of printed circuit boards. This technique is done manually. Electric components are glued, soldered and coated. The problem with this assembly type is a wider margin for wiring error. Only experienced and professional technicians can perform the task.

You can choose to design your own printed circuit board depending on your need. The complexity and size of your PCB depend on the product specifications. Also, you can provide specific components. It is important to ensure that the prototype is approved by Underwriters Laboratories (UL). This guarantees highest quality standards. Whatever designs or assembly types you choose, the company should perform functionality and quality tests on the printed circuit boards.

Experience in the Industry

You should also consider the industry and background experience of manufacturers. This is important in terms of technical expertise. Moreover, the industry experience is a good predictor of cost-effectiveness and reliability.


Choosing the right printed circuit board manufacturer can be tough and crucial. There are different things that you need to take in to consideration.Visit us at as it provides high quality Printed Circuit Board, fabrication and assembly.These include product quality, turnaround time, pricing, minimum orders, assembly types and the manufacturer’s industry experience. Make sure to choose a manufacturing company that can meet your needs.

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A Guide to Choosing the Best Golf Balls

All golf balls are white. All golf balls have the same size. All golf balls have dimples. Therefore, all golf balls are the same.

Does the statement above reflect the truth? If one were to take it from face value, then, yes, all golf balls are the same. Because unlike other sports that somehow focus on the ball, such as basketball and volleyball, the lowly golf ball is often an overlooked part of the game. As such, many people – especially the audience – get the idea that all golf balls share the same characteristics. But if you look closer, you will find that, in fact, not all golf balls are the same. They have differences, however tiny, that distinguish them from each other.

Golf balls are, as a matter of fact, as important as choosing one’s clubs and other golf equipment. Certain golf balls are created for different swing types, depending on the strength of the player. This is why it is best to determine one’s handicap level at the onset to determine which ball to use.

The importance should be further impressed upon new players because without a golf ball that suits your needs, you will have a fairly difficult time adjusting the strength of your swing to match your chosen ball. Whereas if the athlete’s swing type is compatible to that of the golf ball’s weight and characteristic, the athlete will be more comfortable playing that round.

To start off, the manufacturing of golf balls is no easy feat. It is not just about churning out dimpled, white balls. There is also some science involved – aerodynamics and the ball’s capacity to withstand the strength of swings.

For example, in 2002, the world-famous Callaway Golf Company began the first stages of development for its very own golf balls. Large sums were invested onto this project (a fact that would, perhaps, underscore the importance of this small ball on a golfer’s life). After several years of experimentation and testing using aerodynamic computer programs, Callaway Golf’s Rule 35 ball was invented. It was a hit in the golfing world because it balanced distance, feel, and durability for the players perfectly. Because of the Callaway Golf Company’s Rule 35 ball, the field was more evenly opened to amateurs and professionals alike.

From that one ball, the Callaway Golf Company’s inventory of golf balls has grown considerably – from the HEX Chrome Golf Balls down to the Supersoft Golf Balls.

From this example, it is hard to rationalize, especially for serious players, that random golf balls picked up from around the course or driving range can be used by anyone for play. Careful choice and consideration must first be done to determine which type of ball to use.

The first thing one must consider when choosing a golf ball is one’s swing speed and strength. Instruments for measuring such can be found online. When in doubt, consult a golfing professional to avail of a one-on-one consultation regarding this topic.

Second, do research which balls would best fit your playing style and price range. Many consumers stick to a brand familiar to them, and this may be true of golfers as well. If you are fond of a certain brand of clubs, try to find out if they also carry golf balls on their product line.

Lastly, test out your chosen ball or balls. The capacity of anything cannot be found out unless tested on the ground. If this is particularly heavy on the pocket, inquire with your local driving range if they would allow players to do test runs of golf balls.

As with everything else in the world of sport, small things should not be overlooked. After all, one of these small things might cost you someday.

Callaway golf equipment has always had a playability and power that golfers can't get enough of.

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Selling Commercial Real Estate Long Island through Short Sales

When a real estate property is sold at a price lower than the outstanding amount on a mortgage loan, it usually happens as a result of short sales. Property owners who wish to avoid foreclosures know that they must sell the property immediately to avoid any further hassles. Residential and commercial real estate Long Island can be made available for short sales. To avoid hassles also visit site for best property.

real estateAlthough short sales are becoming more and more common across the United States, many agents are still not experienced enough with the whole process. If you’re a commercial real estate Long Island agent and you were asked to handle short sales in the area, it is important for you to understand not only the procedures and the formalities, but the lenders and the sellers’ motivations and priorities as well.

Selling commercial real estate Long Island through short sales may be a daunting task especially for those who are just getting started in the field. In the event that this challenge is given to you, here are some tips that can help you get through the transaction:

Learn from the Experts

If you haven’t dealt with any short sales yet, you may first want to read reliable sources and articles regarding the success and failures of short sales. Although what you know will initially be based only on case studies and theory, at least you have something to work with when your first real challenge comes in. Of course, it is highly recommended for you to seek the advice of someone who has done short sales before. Also, make sure you are always updated with the latest trends and events. Lenders may change their procedures and policies, so it’s important that you are aware of them.

Know Your Role

Sometimes, selling a commercial property would need the involvement of attorneys and short sale specialists. While this is not really a problem, make sure the involved parties know exactly what their roles are in this transaction just to make the process clear and organized.

Make an Agreement with the Lender

Arranging all the paperwork and the procedure with the lender can be really exhaustive. For this process to go smoothly, you must have clear communication with the lender and be able to explain the circumstances of the upcoming short sale on your client’s behalf. Of course, you would also have to explain why the seller cannot continue paying for the mortgage balance. When you make a short sale proposal to the lender, you must also include the property’s lowest sale price.

List the Property for Sale

Once you are done making agreements with the lender, you may now put up advertisements and have the property for sale in the market. The sales price of the property must be at least more than the amount that was previously established by the lender. Make sure that you already have a ready-made contract once a potential buyer becomes interested to acquire the property. In the contract, indicate the closing date. This is basically the date when the whole transaction becomes finalized and the property’s ownership is transferred to the buyer.

Sign the Contracts

When all else is set, the only thing that is left to do is to attend the closing and to sign the contracts. Usually, the lender is the one who prepares the contract for the property buyer. The buyer will then have to pay the lender the amount that was agreed upon during the deal.

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Discovering Potential Uses of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that was originally recognized because of its role in reproduction. HCG and the pituitary hormones follitropin (FSH), lutropin (LH), and thyrotropin (TSH) make up the glycoprotein hormone group.

HCG is synthesized not just by the placenta but also by a range of tumors. Synthesis begins at the very early phase of pregnancy. HCG is released by the blastocytes on the 7th day and, after successful implantation, the placenta begins to manufacture and secrete massive quantities of HCG into the bloodstream. HCG biosynthesis reaches its peak as gestation enters its 11th week, starts waning as it approaches the 12th week, and is maintained at low levels for the rest of the pregnancy. HCG is present in the serum and urine of pregnant women.

The existence of cyclic HCG or LH receptors in the womb implies that these hormones exercise regulatory control over uterine functions. Studies have correlated low HCG levels and reduced uterine vascular resistance in pregnant women.

uses of hcgAnother aspect of HCG that has generated excitement among scientific circles is the apparent potential of this hormone to prevent or control cancer. Clinical studies involving mice showed that injection of purified HCG elevated apoptosis rate in breast cancer xenographs. These results correlate to other clinical findings that exposure to purified HCG diminishes cellular viability in several breast cancer cell lines. The effects of HCG in cell viability seems to be associated with the expression or activation of HCG/LH receptor. Further studies and tests to explore the apoptotic effect of HCG may yet enhance control or treatment of advanced breast cancer in therapies combining HCG injections with chemotherapy or localized treatment.

A deeper understanding of HCG’s configuration might yield relevant information that could lead to breakthroughs in vaccine development. Two structures of HCG have been analyzed, revealing that HCG belongs to the family of cysteine knot growth factors along with other proteins like platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF_beta).

A 37-amino acid peptide makes up the carboxyl terminus of HCG’s beta subunit. This arrangement is unique to HCG and not manifested in other glycoproteins. This is remarkable because 10 of the 37 residues of the amino acids are proline.

The effects of HCG on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been explored by researchers for decades. Presently, the physiological role of HCG on NO synthesis is yet to be fully identified. However, since NO has surfaced as a significant intercellular and intracellular regulatory molecule with functions as varied as neural exchange, host defense, and cell growth management, it’s quite easy to hypothesize on its involvement in the local regulation of various basic processes. Moreover, it has been shown that NO may perform a major role in the management of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor protein’s intrafollicular influx and in ovulation.

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic abnormality that is strongly related to human chorionic gonadotropin. More discoveries on functional and structural relationships could be used to detect and possibly cure this genetic disorder. An earlier diagnosis of Down syndrome would be desirable for any form of intervention to work. Some analytes have been identified in the serum of pregnant women whose fetuses are afflicted with Down syndrome.

In the past decades, a huge number of scientific experiments have been conducted by various researchers to dig deeper into the nature and structure of this pregnancy hormone. It has been proven in so many ways that HCG has a strong link and influence on critical physiological and biological functions of the human body like blood circulation, treatment of cancer cells, and genetic disorders like Down syndrome and so on.

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